XV—Of Christ Alone Without SinChrist in the truth of our nature was made like unto us in all things, sin only except, from which he was clearly void, both in his flesh, and in his spirit. He came to be the Lamb without spot, who, by sacrifice of himself once made, should take away the sins of the world, and sin, as Saint John saith, was not in him. But all we the rest, although baptized, and born again in Christ, yet offend in many things; and if we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.
The purpose of this series (#1, #2), “Bite-Size Bunyan,” is to share John Bunyan’s writings in summary form. Most Christians know such works as The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678, 1684), The Holy War (1682), and Grace Abounding (1666), but what about the foundational Doctrine of the Law and Grace Unfolded (1659) or the antithesis to The Pilgrim’s Progress called The Life and Death of Mr. Badman (1680)? My hope (in different installations and not all at once!) is to make these publications more accessible.
Our third “bite” concerns Bunyan’s work, A Few Sighs from Hell: Or, The Groans of the Damned Soul (1658), on the parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19–31) and possibly based on an earlier series of sermons. Bunyan here not only warns us of the dangers of hell but also points us to glories of heaven through the free grace of God in Christ Jesus. He, to save sinners, was reckoned as “the greatest sinner and rebel in the world” on behalf of sinners. The Bible is “full of consolation” to any “poor soul” who will “close in with Jesus Christ” and “be conducted safe to glory” according to the sure promises of God.
Bunyan relates his views on parables, which while not “realities,” point to “wonderful realities.” Likewise, in this fictional account of a rich man and a beggar, there exists a mix of symbolic and realistic elements regarding this life and the one to come. So, realities such as death, burial, heaven, and hell are directly communicated in the midst of the story. So, Bunyan finds biblical truth related in both a symbolic and didactic manner. Such thinking paved the way for his allegories to come.
Likewise, we learn of Bunyan’s doctrine of hell as that intermediate state entered by the soul at death by those who reject Christ. Sinners truly suffers this state prior to the Second Coming and last resurrection (when soul and body are reunited) leading to final condemnation. Hell, according to Bunyan, is real, tangible, eternal, and irreversible.
We also find Bunyan expressing his views on the Scriptures, which he once saw as a “dead letter, a little ink and paper” but now regarded as the inspired “truths of God” according to 2 Timothy 3:16. This is especially highlighted by Bunyan in relation to Jesus’ emphasis in the parable on the necessity for “Moses and the prophets” over against miraculous signs when it comes to salvation.
While discussing the rich man and miserable beggar, we encounter a class-conscious Bunyan defending the poor without advocating social activism. The rich, claims Bunyan, “are most ready to be puffed up with pride, stoutness, cares of this world, in which things they spend most of their time in lusts, drunkenness, wantonness, idleness, together with the other works of the flesh.” Such exposure of economic inequity around the time of Oliver Crowell’s death and just before the Restoration may have contributed to Bunyan’s arrest in 1660 by the very well-to-do criticized here. While the parable, in the end, is not about money but about heart attachments, Christians today must beware of the dangers of wealth and how easily we can succumb to the comforts and pleasures this world offers.
In the end, all men, rich or poor, must seek their good things in the life to come, lest they miss heaven for the “little pleasure and profit” of this “dunghill-world.” Thus, to be rich is not necessarily to be ungodly or to be poor is to be godly/redeemed. So, the rich man symbolizes all the ungodly and the beggar Lazarus shows us the “poor contemptible” saints of God who “beg earnestly for heavenly food” with their sores possibly denoting “the many troubles, temptations, persecutions, and afflictions” they experience. While Bunyan may have strayed into spiritualizing here, he rightly emphasizes the fact that Christians must seek their good things in the life to come.
In a manner like Jonathan Edwards’s later sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (1741), Bunyan in this book warns people of hell in a vivid and urgent fashion as he depicts it as an ever-present reality hanging over the heads of sinners. Both writers appeal to Psalm 73 where we read that the wicked are “in a moment . . .utterly consumed with terrors.” So, Bunyan asks, is it “not better to leave sin, and to close in with Christ Jesus, . . . , than to live a little while in this world in pleasures and feeding thy lusts, in neglecting the welfare of thy soul, and refusing to be justified by Jesus; and in a moment to drop down to hell and to cry?”
This plea reminds me of Bunyan’s Grace Abounding (1666) testimony of a heavenly voice related to his “soul”: “Wilt thou leave thy sins and go to heaven, or have thy sins and go to hell?” This sobering question aptly serves as a summary for the entire book and a fitting one to leave with you: “Well?”
XIII — Of Works Before JustificationWorks done before the grace of Christ, and the Inspiration of his Spirit, are not pleasant to God, forasmuch as they spring not of faith in Jesus Christ, neither do they make men meet to receive grace, or (as the School-authors say) deserve grace of congruity: yea rather, for that they are not done as God hath willed and commanded them to be done, we doubt not but they have the nature of sin.
XIV—Of Works of SupererogationVoluntary Works besides, over, and above, God’s Commandments, which they call Works of Supererogation, cannot be taught without arrogancy and impiety: for by them men do declare, that they do not only render unto God as much as they are bound to do, but that they do more for his sake, than of bounden duty is required: whereas Christ saith plainly, When ye have done all that are commanded to you, say, We are unprofitable servants.
XII—Of Good WorksAlbeit that Good Works, which are the fruits of Faith, and follow after Justification, cannot put away our sins, and endure the severity of God’s Judgement; yet are they pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ, and do spring out necessarily of a true and lively Faith; insomuch that by them a lively Faith may be as evidently known as a tree discerned by the fruit.
And although we be unworthy, through our manifold sins, to offer unto thee any sacrifice, yet we beseech thee to accept this our bounden duty and service; not weighing our merits, but pardoning our offences, through Jesus Christ our Lord; by whom, and with whom, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, all honour and glory be unto thee, O Father Almighty, world without end. Amen.And we most humbly beseech thee, O heavenly Father, so to assist us with thy grace, that we may continue in that holy fellowship, and do all such good works as thou hast prepared for us to walk in; through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with thee and the Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory, world without end. Amen.